The Cywydd llosgyrnog is the second Welsh form of this challenge and includes many of the features you come to expect from a Welsh form including: strict syllable count, both end rhymes and internal rhymes, and an extremely difficult-to-pronounce (and spell) name!
Using this handy online Guide to Welsh Pronunciation, the best I can suss out as far as the pronunciation of this form would sound something like “kuh-with th-laws-gurr-nog,” but please understand this is only an educated guess.
Requirements of the Form
The Cywydd llosgyrnog form prescribes no restrictions in content or meter, but there are various other requirements that must be adhered to rather strictly.
– Consists of any number of single six-line stanzas (sestets)
– Lines 1, 2, 4 and 5 contain eight syllables – Lines 3 and 6 have seven syllables
-End rhymes (lines 1-6): aabccb -Internal rhymes (lines 3 and 6*): ac *generally falling on syllable 3 or 4
The Minute Poem is a modern form of unknown origin. Despite it’s name–and fortunately for us–the Minute Poem is not a poem that you must write in 60 seconds. Rather, it’s a poem consisting of exactly sixty syllables. Further requirements in length, meter, and rhyme help this form stand out and make for a fun and fairly simple challenge.
Requirements of the Form
– Consists of three quatrains (four-line stanzas) for a total of twelve lines
– Strict iambic (unstressed-stressed)
– Eight syllables in the first line of each stanza – Four syllables in the proceeding lines of each stanza
1-xxxxxxxa 2-xxxa 3-xxxb 4-xxxb
5-xxxxxxxc 6-xxxc 7-xxxd 8-xxxd
9-xxxxxxxe 10-xxxe 11-xxxf 12-xxxf
An Original Minute Poem
I often sleep through summer’s storm
I often sleep through summer’s storm when nights are warm and thick with dreams or so it seems
the quilt pulled high covers my eyes as lightning flies like moon in shroud of creeping cloud
I wake to find the darkened road the flowers bowed the sagging sky the river high
The Miltonic Sonnet is named after the 17th century English poet, political writer, and civil servant, John Milton. With the publishing of his epic poem Paradise Lost, widely regarded as one of the greatest works written in the English language, Milton solidified his reputation as one of the greatest English poets of his time. Milton’s work would live on to influence Romantic poets such as William Blake and William Wordsworth.
Milton adapted the Petrachan sonnet (named for Italian poet-scholar Petrach) and made the popular form his own. He took the sonnet out of the category of “love poems” and brought it into the world of politics, religion, and social issues. He also introduced enjambments (the technical term used for when a poet carries a line through to the next line), while at the same time removing the space between what was before the first and second stanzas, thus tightening up the form. By removing the volta (also known as a pivot, or turn) after the octave (first eight lines), and varying the rhyme scheme of the sestet (proceeding six lines), he further opened up the form.
A reading of one of Milton’s most famous poems should help demonstrate these contributions to the evolution of the sonnet:
“When I Consider How My Light Is Spent”
When I consider how my light is spent, Ere half my days in this dark world and wide, And that one talent which is death to hide Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent To serve therewith my Maker, and present My true account, lest He returning chide; “Doth God exact day-labor, light denied?” I fondly ask. But Patience, to prevent That murmur, soon replies, “God doth not need Either man’s work or His own gifts. Who best Bear His mild yoke, they serve Him best. His state Is kingly: thousands at His bidding speed, And post o’er land and ocean without rest; They also serve who only stand and wait.”
Requirements of the Form
– Fourteen lines – No spaces between ‘stanzas’ – Lines contain enjambment (see above for brief definition)
– Occasional, political, and religious subjects – Unlike other sonnets, does not have a distinct volta (also known as a pivot) after the eighth line
– Iambic pentameter (ten syllables per line, unstressed-stressed pattern).
– First eight lines (octave): abbaabba – Preceding six lines (sestet): often cdecde, but variable
An Original Miltonic Sonnet
The viral imagine haunted every screen– A photograph too horrid to ignore: A pair of bloated bodies on the shore. In Congress followed yet another scene Of bickering and washing white-hands clean. No older than The Virgin when she bore The Savior that they claim to so adore, The budding mother wonders what they mean. As children hungry, dirty, sick and scared Are torn away and locked in concrete halls Lay weak with worry, overwhelmed with fear, The value of their lives is weighed and tared; As Washington debates the costs of walls, Who dares to speak of Christ’s compassion here?
Notes on My Original Sonnet
I challenged myself to write a sonnet that was true to the Miltonic themes of politics, religion, and current events, and found in the issue of immigration a combination of all three. The line “children hungry, dirty, sick and scared” was taken from this BBC News article and served as the fulcrum of this poem.
The Ovillejo is the first form of this challenge with a lineage that can be traced back to a single well-known source: Miguel de Cervantes’ epic comedy (or is it a tragedy?) The Ingenious Gentleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha, better known today simply as Don Quixote (1605).
Untangling the Ovillejo
Ovillo in Spanish means “ball,” usually indicating a ball of yarn or wool. A Poet’s Glossary explains: “The word ovillego refers to a spool of thread or wool, and this complicated Spanish stanzaic form is ‘tied in a little knot’…[which] unravels in ten lines.”
Learning by Example
The Ovillejo is a complex form which can perhaps be best introduced through example. Below you’ll see an excerpt from Paul Archer’s English translation of Miguel de Cervantes’ poem, “Ovillejos” from Don Quixote, followed by the original Spanish version.
Ovillejos (Archer Translation)
What undermines all I attempt? Contempt! What heaps sorrow onto me? Jealousy! And what gnaws me through and through? Missing you!
That’s why nothing will do to make my distress less – I’m killed by hopelessness, contempt, jealousy and missing you!
Ovillejos (Original Spanish)
¿Quién menoscaba mis bienes? ¡Desdenes! Y ¿quién aumenta mis duelos? ¡Los celos! Y ¿quién prueba mi paciencia? ¡Ausencia!
De este modo en mi dolencia ningún remedio se alcanza, pues me matan la esperanza, desdenes, celos y ausencia.
Translation vs Original
It’s an understatement to say that translating poetry in any language is a difficult task. In a form with as many requirements as this has, you’ll likely have to make some compromises. Even a non-Spanish speaker should be able to notice that Archer’s translation has preserved the original’s punctuation (excepting the exclamation in the last line) and rhyme scheme, but not the syllable count. The lesson here is you can’t rely solely on any translation to learn the requirements of a given form.
Structure: – The Ovillejo is a poem consisting of ten lines
– These ten lines are usually made up of a sestet (6 line stanza) and a quatrain (4 line stanza)
– Any number of Ovillejos can be connected to create a sequence (you’ll see here that Cervantes’ “Ovillejos” is a sequence of three Ovillejos)
Content: – Lines 1, 3, and 5 of the first stanza must ask a question, which the preceding line (2, 4, 6) must answer
– The second stanza reflects and amplifies the first stanza
– The last line of the second stanza must be a culmination of lines 2, 4, and 6 of the previous stanza (this is known as a redondilla). The exclamation point on the final line appears to be optional
Rhyming: – The first stanza can either be seen as three couplets, or a sestet with an aa bbcc rhyme scheme
– The second stanza is always a quatrain, with a cddc rhyme scheme
Syllable Count: – In the first stanza, lines 1 ,3, and 5 consist of eight syllables. Lines 2, 4, and 6 consist of two to three syllables
– Lines 7, 8, and 9 consist of eight syllables in the second stanza
– The final line should consist of seven to ten syllables
If all of these rules are leaving your brain feeling like a ball of tangled yarn, here’s a breakdown:
Ovillejo Requirement Breakdown*
Line 1: a rhyme in 8 syllables (question) Line 2: a rhyme in 2-3 syllables (single word exclamation) Line 3: b rhyme in 8 syllables (question) Line 4: b rhyme in 2-3 syllables (single word exclamation) Line 5: c rhyme in 8 syllables (question) Line 6: c rhyme in 2-3 syllables (single word exclamation)
Line 7: c rhyme in 8 syllables Line 8: d rhyme in 8 syllables Line 9: d rhyme in 8 syllables Line 10: (Line 2) (Line 4) (Line 6) (optional exclamation)
The Magic 9 form is a newer form with uncertain origins (though one website states it was created by Divena Collins). The idea for the rhyme scheme is rumored to have sprung from the rushed misspelling of the famous incantatory exclamation: abacadabra!
Structure of the Magic 9 Poem
Requirements of the Magic 9 form:
– Comprised of a single nine-line stanza
– Must follow the rhyme scheme: abacadaba
– No restrictions on line length, meter or subject matter
Tips and Techniques
One way to get started is to make a list of end words.
To do this form correctly you’ll need: – 5 a end rhymes – 2 b end rhymes – 1 c end word – 1 d end word
Determine what kind of end rhymes you’d like to use. Click here for a handy guide on the different rhyme types used in poetry.
First try single-syllable end rhyme words, and then expand to two or even three-syllable words. Consider how these changes feel and how each possibility resonates within the structure of the form.
Now brainstorm around your favorite end rhyme clusters, looking for meaningful ways to bring them together.
Keep it loose at the beginning and let the creativity flow. Your internal editor is not allowed in this free-flowing creative space, so don’t stop to judge or think too critically–that’s what revision is for.
An Original Magic 9 Poem
Away from the glare of the city’s light, We follow the firefly’s flash. Abandoning the screens that so narrow our sight, We trace the heavens for our favorite constellations. With galaxies and gods, all going ’round in our flight, We lay down our blanket in a hidden patch of prairie. In this brilliant darkness, our vision’s set right, As the dazzling meteors slash Across the impossible night.
Not much is known about the origin of this form, but it’s possible that the Diminishing Verse form that we know today evolved from the classic triplet, and there is some evidence to suggest this (more on that here). All triplets consist of a three line stanza (commonly referred to a tercet), as do many Diminishing Verse poems. But where a classic triplet features a distinct rhyme scheme, the Diminishing Verse form has a more interesting–and challenging–way of creatively manipulating the last word of each line.
The Incredible Shrinking End Word
The key unique feature in a Diminishing Verse poem is the manipulation of the last word in each line, in a diminishing fashion. I did find some variation on where the emphasis should be placed within the end word itself. In one variation, emphasis is placed on the vowel sound of the end word, making the challenge to decrease the number of preceding consonants while maintaining the vowel sound (flair/rare/air). Another variation offers less flexibility, asking the poet to remove initial letters of the word without any other changes to spelling (heat/eat/at). A poem of this kind might read:
If you can stand the heat And you can’t wait to eat The kitchen is where it’s at
Nearly all of the contemporary examples I could find focused on this second emphasis, and this was the basis for my own experiments.
Other Notes On Structure
Beyond the above-mentioned end word requirements, there are very few formal restrictions in this form: – No rules for syllable count, line length, rhyming, poem length, etc. – Stanzas can be of any length, but tercets are most common. This is mostly due to the strict end word requirements and the natural constraints those requirements impose.
Tips and Techniques
Reverse-engineering your poem by starting with a cluster of usable end words may be the most fruitful way to get started in this form.
I began by making a list of possible end words in sets of three (if you can up with more, take it as far as you like!). Starting with the smallest word (usually one consisting of two or three letters) and working backwards by adding one or two letters at the front may make this easier. Even with only 3 lines, you’ll be surprised how limited your options really are.
When selecting your end words, watch out for affixes (kind/un-kind) and compound words (bee/honeybee) that modify the meaning of a word, but signify nearly the same thing. They may not make for good poetry.
Once you’ve made your list, pick out some of your most intriguing word clusters for further development.
Two Original Diminishing Verse Poems
The Riots of Spring
As the thunder churns, as the lightning cleaves, The nestlings cower in the quaking leaves; The spider’s web quivers beneath the eaves.
But soon the red fox will doze in the clover; The monarch will settle on its yellow-petaled lover; The riots of spring will be over.
He dreads The daily news–he only reads The ads.
Bonus Challenge! Diminishing Verse…in Reverse
If you add one or more letters to the beginning of the end word of each previous line (instead of subtracting), you get Diminishing Verse’s opposite: the Culminating Verse poem!
An Original Culminating Verse Poem
The art In eating a tart Is knowing when to start.
Welsh poetry — much like the language itself — often has a musical quality and emphasizes the sound of the words through the use of assonance and alliteration. The Gwawdodyn (gwow-DOD-in) is an old Welsh poetic form made up of a varying number of quatrains with strict syllabic restrictions and rhyme requirements.
Structure of the Gwawdodyn
Requirements of the Gwawdodyn form:
– Comprised of any number of quatrains (four-line stanzas)
– Usually features a 9/9/10/9 syllable pattern for each stanza
– Follows a unique rhyme scheme with matching end rhymes (a) on lines 1, 2, and 4, with a variable internal rhyme (b) on line 3:
1-xxxxxxxxa 2-xxxxxxxxa 3-xxxxbxxxxb 4-xxxxxxxxa
Variations on lines 3 and 4:
– The internal ‘b’ rhyme in the third line can be shifted to the left or right as needed, but is usually found towards the middle of the line
– One possible variation features a matching internal rhyme in lines 3 and 4, with no end rhyme in line 3:
1-xxxxxxxxa 2-xxxxxxxxa 3-xxxxbxxxxx 4-xxxbxxxxa
You may find other variations of this form featuring slightly different syllable counts and rhyming patterns, with the most variation found in lines 3 and 4.
Tips and Techniques
The first major challenge of this form is the restricted number of syllables. If you’re aiming to stay true to the original form, count carefully and try to avoid compromises.
I usually begin by searching for a line I’ve previously recorded in one of my notebooks. As I flip through my notebooks, I search for a line that can be molded to fit the syllabic requirement and has an end word that isn’t too restricting.
As with any poem featuring end rhymes, you’ll want to choose these words most carefully. You’ll have some choices to make on the types of rhymes you’d like to use. A poem that uses only true, masculine rhymes (dire/fire) will have a different feel than one that uses only true, feminine rhymes (desire/retire) or one that uses only slant rhymes of either type (moon/doom) or any combination of these.
Once I have what I believe to be a workable first line, I list out my possible end rhyme words, using my first line’s end word as my guide. I almost always explore the possibilities within the true rhymes first. If these options are too limiting (and they often are) I’ll explore slant rhymes, staying as close to true as I can while aiming for maximum resonance. Once I believe I have a sufficient end rhyme word bank to select from, I’ll underline or highlight the words I feel are most resonant with the tone and theme of the first line.
An Original Gwawdodyn Poem
Sons of Abraham
Tell me all you Sons of Abraham Spilling sacred blood for sacred land: Do your daughters weep to see the slaughter Of so many sacrificial lambs?
Commentary on my original poem
While there are no metrical specifications for this form, I often enjoy writing in meter, and you’ll find my poem is mostly written in iambic tetrameter.
Though this poem in its current form consists of a single quatrain, a traditional Gwawdodyn can be made up of as many quatrains as the poet pleases. I’ll no doubt explore options for expanding this work in the future.
I use a mixture of masculine and feminine rhymes. And although my rhymes are often slanted, I still match the sounds closely.
There is a great deal of assonance (long and short a sounds) and alliteration (s sounds) in this piece, which I believe is in keeping with the musicality often associated with traditional Welsh poetry.
Wordsmiths and Versifiers, Rhymesters and Sonneteers, Bards and Balladeers…
Welcome to the Fifty-Two Form Poetry Challenge!
About the Challenge
Over the next year, I’m challenging myself to collect as many unique poetic forms as possible. I’ll randomly select a form and make my best attempt to write an original poem in the selected form each week for the next 52 weeks.
In every weekly post, I’ll provide an overview of the selected form, including a brief history, specific form requirements (meter, rhyme, syllable-count, etc), and some tips and techniques I found useful when composing my original poem. Each post will conclude with an original poem in the selected form, as well as a section with links to further resources.
What you’ll need to play along at home:
– A list of at least 52 unique forms. I suggest collecting as many as you can, because why not? I suggest starting your quest here. Assign a number to the forms you collect.
– A way to randomly select a number from 1 to 52. You can use an online random number generator or fifty-two slips of paper in a 1-gallon hat. Have fun with it!
About the Author
I am not a professional writer or even a published poet. I am not a professor, scholar, or literary historian, and I speak with little authority on the subject of poetry as a whole. I do, however, consider myself an earnest enthusiast and lifelong student of poetry. As an undergrad, I did have the extreme privilege of studying creative writing under former Kansas Poet Laureate Kevin Rabas at Emporia State University, and poetry under another Kansas Poet Laureate, the wonderful Eric McHenry, at Washburn University.
As an amateur songwriter, I’m especially interested in the intersection between music and poetry, and I’m excited to explore all the possible ways I may find to incorporate aspects of what I learn through this process into my songwriting endeavors. I believe all things are enhanced by the clarity, power, and imagination that a poetic perspective can bring.
This is my very first attempt at undertaking such a lengthy challenge, and will also be my first time regularly publishing online. I embark on this adventure on the day of my 36th birthday. Please wish me luck, courage, and fortitude!
References and Acknowledgements
Robert Lee Brewer’s List of 86 Poetic Forms for Poets for The Writer’s Digest served both as an inspiration for the project and an invaluable online source of reference information and examples. An essential resource.
Edward Hirsch’s 700+ page A Poet’s Glossary is an exhaustive and equally indispensable source of both information and inspiration. Hirsch’s How to Read a Poem is highly recommended as well.
Both aspiring and long-practicing poets would do well to keep a copy of Mary Oliver’s concise and gracefully crafted A Poetry Handbook close at hand.
On a more personal note, a special thanks to Eric McHenry for his invaluable guidance and enthusiastic support.